Election Officials

Elections - Critical Infrastructure

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Geoff Hale DHS presentation

Presentation by Geoff Hale, DHS

DHS Q and A with EAC Chairman Matthew Master and DHS Geoff Hale

TGDC Meeting on February 22, 2017

Starting Point: U.S. Election Systems as Critical Infrastructure WhitepaperThe Department of Homeland Security has designated elections systems as part of our nation’s critical infrastructure. At the time of designation, then-DHS Secretary Jeh Johnson observed, "Given the vital role elections play in this country, it is clear that certain systems and assets of election infrastructure meet the definition of critical infrastructure, in fact and in law." While there is no disagreement that elections play a vital role in our democracy, the DHS designation has left many state and local election officials wondering how the decision will impact their election offices, polling places, and the voters they serve. The EAC is committed to helping state and local election officials get answers to their questions, as well as helping DHS think through the best way to implement this designation in order to protect the accessibility, accuracy and security of elections. This webpage is the online hub for this EAC effort.

Whitepaper:

What we know:

Questions from state and local officials:

Operational  |  Structural  |  Technical

Glossary

 
Term Definition
Critical Infrastructure Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters. (Source:§1016(e) of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 (42 U.S.C. §5195c(e)))
Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) Council established by DHS under 6 U.S.C. §451 to facilitate effective interaction and coordination of critical infrastructure activities among the Federal Government, the private sector, and State, local, tribal and territorial governments. (Source: CIPAC Charter) These meetings are exempt from the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) requirements that they be open to the public and provide meeting materials to the public.
Critical Infrastructure Sector A logical collection of assets, systems, or networks that provide a common function to the economy, government, or society; NIPP 2013 addresses 16 critical infrastructure sectors, as identified in PPD-21. (Source: NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience)
Cybersecurity The prevention of damage to, unauthorized use of, or exploitation of, and, if needed, the restoration of electronic information and communications systems and the information contained therein to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability; includes protection and restoration, when needed, of information networks and wireline, wireless, satellite, public safety answering points, and 911 communications systems and control systems. (Source: 2009 NIPP)
Executive Order 13636 Executive Order that calls for the Federal Government to closely coordinate with critical infrastructure owners and operators to improve cybersecurity information sharing; develop a technology-neutral cybersecurity framework; and promote and incentivize the adoption of strong cybersecurity practices. (Executive Order 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, February 2013)/td>
Government Coordinating Council (GCC) The government counterpart to the Sector Coordinating Council for each sector established to enable interagency and intergovernmental coordination; comprises representatives across various levels of government (Federal and State, local, tribal and territorial) as appropriate to the risk and operational landscape of each sector. (Source: 2009 NIPP)
Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) Operational entities formed by critical infrastructure owners and operators to gather, analyze, appropriately sanitize, and disseminate intelligence and information related to critical infrastructure. ISACs provide 24/7 threat warning and incident reporting capabilities and have the ability to reach and share information within their sectors, between sectors, and among government and private sector stakeholders. (Source: Presidential Decision Directive 63, 1998) ISACs are not operated, controlled, or managed by DHS.
Information Sharing and Analysis Organization (ISAO) “Any formal or informal entity or collaboration created or employed by public or private sector organizations, for purposes of gathering and analyzing critical infrastructure information in order to better understand security problems and interdependencies related to critical infrastructure and protected systems, so as to ensure the availability, integrity, and reliability there of; communicating or disclosing critical infrastructure information to help prevent, detect, mitigate, or recover from the effects of a interference, compromise, or a incapacitation problem related to critical infrastructure or protected systems; and voluntarily disseminating critical infrastructure information to its members, State, local, and Federal Governments, or any other entities that may be of assistance in carrying out the purposes specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B).” (Source: Homeland Security Act of 2002)
Infrastructure The framework of interdependent networks and systems comprising identifiable industries, institutions (including people and procedures), and distribution capabilities that provide a reliable flow of products and services essential to the defense and economic security of the United States, the smooth functioning of government at all levels, and society as a whole; consistent with the definition in the Homeland Security Act, infrastructure includes physical, cyber, and/or human elements. (Source: DHS Lexicon, 2010)
National Annual Report Each SSA is required to provide an annual report to the Secretary of Homeland Security on their efforts to identify, prioritize, and coordinate CI/KR protection in their respective sectors. (National Infrastructure Protection Plan: The National CI/KR Protection Annual Report)
National Infrastructure Coordinating Center (NICC) The National Infrastructure Coordinating Center (NICC) is the dedicated 24/7 coordination and information sharing operations center that maintains situational awareness of the nation’s critical infrastructure for the federal government. When an incident or event affecting critical infrastructure occurs and requires coordination between the Department of Homeland Security and the owners and operators of our nation’s infrastructure, the NICC serves as that information sharing hub to support the security and resilience of these vital assets. (Source: DHS.gov/national-infrastructure-coordinating-center)
National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) The National Infrastructure Protection Plan 2013, involving stakeholders from all 16 critical infrastructure sectors, all 50 states, and from all levels of government and industry, provides a clear call to action to leverage partnerships, innovate for risk management, and focus on outcomes, provides an updated approach to critical infrastructure security and resilience, and involves a greater focus on integration of cyber and physical security efforts. (DHS, NIPP Fact Sheet)
National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) – (DHS/NPPD) [The DHS division] that leads the DHS mission to reduce risk to the Nation’s critical physical and cyber infrastructure through partnerships that foster collaboration and interoperability. (Source: DHS FY13 Budget Guidance). NPPD contains the Federal Protective Service, the Office of Identity Management, the Office of Cybersecurity and Communications, the Office of Cyber and Infrastructure Analysis, and the Office of Infrastructure Protection.
Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) [Presidential Directive that] Aims to clarify roles and responsibilities across the Federal Government and establish a more effective partnership with owners and operators and State, local, tribal and territorial entities to enhance the security and resilience of critical infrastructure. (Source: PPD-21, 2013)
Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD-8) [Presidential Directive that] facilitates an integrated, all-of-Nation approach to national preparedness for the threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the Nation, including acts of terrorism, cyber-attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters; directs the Federal Government to develop a national preparedness system to build and improve the capabilities necessary to maintain national preparedness across the five mission areas covered in the PPD: prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. (Source: PPD-8, 2011)
Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) PCII is [information and communications] protected from disclosure. All critical infrastructure information that has been properly submitted and validated pursuant to the Critical Infrastructure Information Act and implementing directive; all information submitted to the PCII Program Office or designee with an express statement is presumed to be PCII until the PCII Program Office determines otherwise. Critical infrastructure information voluntarily shared with the government and validated as PCII by the Department of Homeland Security is protected from, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), State, local, tribal, and territorial disclosure laws, use in regulatory actions and use in civil litigation. PCII can only be accessed in accordance with strict safeguarding and handling requirements, and only trained and certified federal, state, and local government employees or contractors may access PCII.(Source: CII Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 131, and www.dhs.gov/pcii-program)
Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) Trained critical infrastructure protection and vulnerability mitigation subject matter experts who work for DHS and are responsible for ensuring all Office of Infrastructure Protection critical infrastructure security and resilience programs and services are delivered to State, local, tribal, and territorial stakeholders and private sector owners and operator. There are three types: (1) Regional Directors, supervisory PSAs, PSAs, and geospatial analysts. s. (Source: DHS.gov/protective-security-advisors)
Sector Coordinating Council (SCC) The private sector counterpart to the GCC, these councils are self-organized, self-run, and self-governed organizations that are representative of a spectrum of key stakeholders within a sector. They serve as principal entry points for the government to collaborate with each sector for developing and coordinating a wide range of critical infrastructure security and resilience activities and issues. (Source: Adapted from the 2009 NIPP)
Sector-Specific Agency (SSA) A Federal department or agency designated by PPD-21 with responsibility for providing institutional knowledge and specialized expertise, as well as leading, facilitating, or supporting the security and resilience programs and associated activities of its designated critical infrastructure sector in the allhazards environment. (Source: PPD-21, 2013)
Sector-Specific Plans (SSP) Planning documents that complement and tailor application of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan to the specific characteristics and risk landscape of each critical infrastructure sector. SSPs are developed by the SSAs in close collaboration with the SCCs and other sector partners. (Source: Adapted from the 2009 NIPP)
Election Officials

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