A (77) | B (72) | C (171) | D (54) | E (99) | F (47) | G (15) | H (23) | I (15) | J (5) | K (1) | L (18) | M (54) | N (39) | O (40) | P (173) | Q (18) | R (132) | S (185) | T (69) | U (29) | V (152) | W (29) | X (6) | Y (1) | Z (4)
Glossary Term Definition
Hand Count

Counting ballot sheets and/or selections on ballot sheets by human examination.

Hand-marked Paper Ballot

Paper ballot marked by a voter using a writing utensil. The paper ballot is the independent voter verifiable record.

hanging chads

Chad refers to fragments sometimes created when holes are made in a paper, card or similar synthetic materials, such as punched cards. A "hanging chad" is a chad that is incompletely removed.

hard money

Political contributions made directly to a specific candidate.

Hard of Hearing

Refers to a hearing loss where there may be enough residual hearing that an auditory device may aid.


The physical, tangible, mechanical, or electromechanical components of a system.

hash Algorithm that maps a bit string of arbitrary length to a fixed-length bit string
hash function A function that maps a bit string of arbitrary length to a fixed-length bit string. Approved hash functions satisfy the following properties: 1. (one-way) It is computationally infeasible to find any input that maps to any pre-specified output, and 2. (collision-resistant) It is computationally infeasible to find any two distinct inputs that map to the same output.

An opportunity to state one's case through a formal administrative process.

hearing officer

An individual who is authorized to apply a legal process, conduct hearings, resolve administrative disputes, facilitate negotiations between opposing parties, and issue legal decisions.

hearing procedures

The rules and series of actions that govern how hearings are administered.

Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA):

Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2002 to make reforms to the nation’s voting process. HAVA addresses improvements to voting systems and voter access that were identified following the 2000 election.

Help America Vote College Program

A program authorized under the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) to encourage student participation as poll workers or assistants, to foster student interest in the elections process, and to encourage state and local governments to use students as poll workers.

high school district

A geographical unit for the local administration of secondary schools. It is a special-purpose government entity with elected board members.

hold an election

The term used when a government authority administers an election.

hold elections

The term used when government authorities administer elections.

hold hearings

To indicate that an agency is organizing a process for an individual or organization to state one's case, resolve administrative disputes, facilitate negotiations between opposing parties, and issue legal decisions.

hold office

A term used to describe an individual who has been sworn into public office and is currently serving in the position.

home rule

The right of the people cities, village, townships or other local districts to set up and change their own governmental structure.

home rule charter

In some states, known as home rule states, the state's constitution grants municipalities and/or counties the ability to pass laws to govern themselves as they see fit (so long as they obey the state and federal constitutions). The Charter is the written document that defines the laws and regulations of that body.

home rule city

A city that has adopted a Charter outlining the form of government and local laws.

house of representatives

The lower house of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States. The House's composition is established by Article One of the United States Constitution.

house seat

One of 435 regions from which voting representatives are elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.